Thursday, March 19, 2020
What Savs Cal in East of Eden Faith 1Faith M. DennyMr. FineranAP Lit24 September 2014The movie East of Eden has many allusions throughout it. A main one is how Cal and Aron show similarities with Cain and Abel (two brothers in The Bible). In the biblical version, Cain murders his brother, then is cast away from his family. When cast away, he is doomed to live east of Eden. Although there had been many similarities up to then, when Cal (basically) murders Aaron, he is not cast out. Instead, Cal is saved.Throughout Cal's entire life, he feels that he is 'bad'. He constantly uses this term to describe his life and how he is feeling. At one point, Cal says, "Every person only has a certain amount of good in them and a certain amount of bad." He feels that evil mostly influences him and that causes him to act the way he does.15th century depiction of Cain and Abel, Speculum ...His thoughts are reaffirmed when he discovers that his mother is a heavy drug dealer and basically the runner of a local trap house. His realiz ation of where he comes from leads to more destructive habits.As his destructive habits build, he tries to repress them and earn his father's love, but he goes about it in the wrong way. Cal borrows money from his mother, invests it, and earns enough to give his father what he lost in the ice business. His father does not see this act as thoughtful as Cal intended it to be. Instead of being excited, his father is disgusted and instructs him to return the money. This causes Cal to drift even further away from his father.While Cal is drifting away from his father, he becomes closer to Abru. A main reason that Cal chooses to stay and is not...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Gigantopithecus - Facts and Figures Name: Gigantopithecus (Greek for giant ape); prounced jie-GAN-toe-pith-ECK-us Habitat: Woodlands of Asia Historical Epoch: Miocene-Pleistocene (six million to 200,000 years ago) Size and Weight: Up to nine feet tall and 1,000 pounds Diet: Probably omnivorous Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; large, flat molars; four-footed posture About Gigantopithecus The literal 1,000-pound gorilla sitting in the corner of a natural history museum, the appropriately named Gigantopithecus was the largest ape that ever lived, not quite King Kong-sized but, at up to half a ton or so, much bigger than your average lowland gorilla. Or, at least, thats the way this prehistoric primate has been reconstructed; frustratingly, practically everything we know about Gigantopithecus is based on its scattered, fossilized teeth and jaws, which first came to the worlds attention when they were sold in Chinese apothecary shops in the first half of the 20th century. Paleontologists arent even sure how this colossus moved; the consensus is that it must have been a ponderous knuckle-walker, like modern gorillas, but a minority opinion holds that Gigantopithecus may have been capable of walking on its two hind feet. Another mysterious thing about Gigantopithecus is when, exactly, it lived. Most experts date this ape from Miocene to mid-Pleistocene eastern and southeastern Asia, about six million to one million years B.C., and it may have survived in small populations until as late as 200,000 or 300,000 years ago. Predictably, a small community of cryptozoologists insists that Gigantopithecus never went extinct, and persists in the present day, high up in the Himalayan Mountains, as the mythical Yeti, better known in the west as the Abominable Snowman! (Rest assured that no reputable scientists subscribe to this theory, which is supported by absolutely no compelling material or eyewitness evidence.) As fearsome as it must have looked, Gigantopithecus seems to have been mostly herbivorouswe can infer from its teeth and jaws that this primate subsisted on fruits, nuts, shoots and, just possibly, the occasional small, quivering mammal or lizard. (The presence of an unusual number of cavities in Gigantopithecus teeth also points to a possible diet of bamboo, much like that of a modern Panda Bear.) Given its size when fully grown, an adult Gigantopithecus would not have been an active target of predation, though the same cant be said for sick, juvenile or aged individuals, which figured on the lunch menu of various tigers, crocodiles and hyenas. Gigantopithecus comprises three separate species. The first and largest, G. blacki, lived in southeastern Asia starting in the middle Pleistocene epoch and shared its territory, toward the end of its existence, with various populations of Homo erectus, the immediate precursor of Homo sapiens. The second, G. bilaspurensis, dates to six million years ago, during the Miocene epoch, about the same early time frame as the oddly named G. giganteus, which was only about half the size of its G. blacki cousin.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Causes of the French Revolution - Essay Example Under the shadow of this dilemmatic political concern, French feudal lords proved to be a focus of attention by limiting the power and freedom of a common man. Although, the Lords were a principal target of rural insurrection; they remained on centre stage in the National Assembly's dramatic renunciation of privilege of 1789 thereby forming a continual bone of contention between rural communities who found the early enactments of the legislators to be thoroughly inadequate along with legislators facing continuing rural turbulence; therefore they were an essential element in the revolutionaries' notions of the "feudal regime" being dismantled; they were the concrete subject matter addressed in the first legislation that tested the tensions inherent in the thorny constitutional issue of a royal veto (and they thereby contributed to the difficulty of embodying the Revolution in some monarchical form); they were invoked in the rhetoric with which those in high places addressed the growin g international tension surrounding the revolutionary state, a rhetoric which imbued the revolutionaries with a self-righteous sense of a national mission to liberate the victims of feudalism outside of France, altering the character of European warfare. (Markoff, 1996, p. 3) The best example is the involvement of British and German governments in this concern of revolution. One of the main reasons for the revolution is the authority practiced by Lords which let arrears accumulate on periodic dues for years, then demand that peasants pay up, and accept a land-for-debt swap; under retrait, a lord had the optional right to substitute himself for the purchaser of peasant land; and lords might hold or fabricate a claim on a portion of common land. Many seigniorial rights could thus be put at the service of landholders oriented to a growing agricultural market, to such an extent that some historians have wondered whether peasant contestation might not be better described as a losing, rear-guard struggle against a growing capitalism than a vanguard battle against a dying feudalism in conjunction' with the victorious bourgeoisie. (Markoff, 1996, p. 77) Another factor that leads one to think as the cause of revolution was the corruption of the Lords and noble people, who were not liable to any of the (heavy or normal) taxation system implemented by the government, for being an authoritative privileged class. The dilemma lied within their perception according to which they were not answerable to any official in case of denial of any rule. Financial Downfall Right from Louis XIV to Louis XVI, all the noble personnel enjoyed undue privileges and advantages particularly in the financial matters. These include: 1. Lack of financial accountability in response to government questions, and they never use to bother about it. 2. They had access to government loans with the right to acquire
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Grand Hotel Scarborough - Essay Example This paper discusses the effects of free-thinking and development during this period by citing the multi-dimensional background of this historical landmark. The Grand Hotel is considered to be an important part of Victorian legacy since it was the first custom-built hotel in the whole of Europe. According to Wolff (2009), Europeans were growing wealthier due to the era of colonialism and the benefits realized through the Renaissance. The Grand Hotel was constructed to attract the richest vacationers with some of the latest luxuries of the day. The hotel was first constructed in 1863 at a time when the notion of sub-bathing was gaining widespread popularity. By 1867, the hotel had evolved into one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest luxury hotels and consisted of more than 370 guest rooms. Watkin (2007) says that the architecture of the hotel is truly Victorian in nature and was instrumental in popularizing it as an early holiday resort. Scarborough was a small-town sea resort for almost 25 0 years prior to the construction of the Grand Hotel. The first Spa in the town came up around 1626, when a stream of water containing acidic properties was discovered flowing down from the nearby cliffs. A hundred years later, visitors had the opportunity to have a dip in the sea and could sun-bathe on the shore. But it was not until the arrival of the modern railway during the 1840s that the number of visitors into the town multiplied manifold (Burton, 2008). More than seven million yellow bricks were used for the construction of this hotel and were prepared specially for this purpose in the nearby town of Hunmanby (Burton, 2008). The rise in tourist numbers presented a new business opportunity and prompted an architect named John Gibson to design a magnificent hotel that would be constructed on ScarboroughÃ¢â¬â¢s South Cliff. The plan to build the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest hotel was unveiled in 1845 and it was not until 18 years later that the hotel was deemed complete. According to Linstrum (2009), the hotel consisted of four large towers at each of its corners and represented the four seasons in a year. There were 12 floors denoting the 12 months in a year. By 1867, the hotel boasted of over 365 rooms signifying the number of days in a year. In fact, the hotel has a total of fifty-two chimneys, one for each week in a year. Hitchcock (2008) says that the time and care taken to construct this hotel projects the prevailing sentiment during the era that inspired achievement and perfection. Guests at the Grand Hotel were provided up to four taps to choose between fresh and sea water (both hot and cold). Kemp (2004) adds that the entire hotel was itself constructed in a Ã¢â¬ËVÃ¢â¬â¢ shape to commemorate Queen Victoria. The Grand Hotel, together with other popular landmarks in Scarborough, was bombed severely during the First World War. However, it was restored back to its original glory in quick time. The Hotel suffered serious damage when the German Navy bo mbarded the entire coastline in Northern Yorkshire in 1914. Luckily, the attack happened during the off-peak season when there were very few guests in the hotel. Shells from German U-boats damaged the Grand Restaurant while several guestrooms suffered massive damage due to direct bombardment. The cost of refurbishing the hotel during those days was estimated at nearly ?10,000 (Gray, 2006). While the
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Carotenoid Profiles in Pandan Leaves Introduction Pandan Leaves In Indonesia, people are familiar of using several herbal leaves for special purposes especially for condiments to act as natural colorants or natural flavors to improve color and flavors in food e.g. pandan leaves (Figure 1). Pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb) have been used in cooking and also as traditional herbal treatment for several illnesses in South East Asia Countries (Wongpornchai, 2004). Figure 1. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Classification of Pandan leaves are bellow Kingdom:Ã Plantae Subkingdom:Ã Tracheobionta Super Division: Spermathophyta Division: Magnoliophyta Class:Ã Liliopsida Subclass:Ã Arecidae Ordo:Ã Pandanales Famili:Ã Pandanaceae Genus:Ã Pandanus Species:Ã Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. There are several herbs that have been investigated contain expressive amounts of several bioactive compounds which can decrease ageing and also prolong life span and living organism (Ferrari, 2013). Natural products, including essential oils and extracts are the main source of biologically active compounds that can give benefit for human health (FernÃ ¡ndez-GarcÃ a et al., 2012). Many people said that pandan leaves are vanilla of the east since it is commonly used in several foods with the vanilla like aroma (Comax Flavors, 2011). The genus name Pandanus is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In several Asia countries, pandan leaves, names given include pandan wangi (Malaysian), daun pandan (Indonesian), bai toey or toey hom (Thai), taey (Khmer), tey ban, tey hom (Laotian), dua thom (Vietnamese), and ban yan le (Chinese) (Wongpornchai, 2004). The distribution of pandan leaves is found over Southern India, the Southeast Asia peninsular, Indonesia and Western New Guinea (Wongpornchai, 2004). The plants grow in clumps and have thin and sharp leaves at the edge where the form is like sword, fragrant odor. Pandan leaves, commonly known as pandan, are often used to give a refreshing, fragrant flavor to both sweet and savoury South-East-Asian dishes (rice, chicken, jellies, drinks, puddings, custard or sweets). Pandan leaves are also used in cooking ordinary non-aromatic rice to imitate the more expensive aromatic Basmati and Jasmine rices (Nor, Mohamed, Idris, Ismail, 2008). Since the flavour of pandan leaves is similar to that possessed by some famous aromatic rice varieties, the leaves often find their way into the rice pot to enhance the aroma of lesser rice varieties. By increasing the aroma in lesser rice varieties, it can increase the consumer acceptance by enhance the flavour perception in customer where the non-aromatic rice has similar flavour with the aromatic rice e.g. Basmati and Jasmine rice. Flavour perception is interesting subject. The flavour of food is ultimately a product of the brain. The brain combines sensory information from taste, smell and touch to generate our perception flavour, and how it does this is currently a hot topic in psychology and neuroscience (Stevenson Richard, 2013). The study of the mechanism of important flavour during cooking rice is quite comp lex, where the absorption of important flavour by rice in both optimal and excess water cooking was highly dependent on the presence of water, moisture content of rice, water to rice ratio, starch gelatinization process as well as temperature and time of cooking (Yahya, 2011). Rice grains with the popcorn like fragrance are very popular among several Asian countries. In particular, Basmati in India and Pakistan; Khao Dawk Mali 105 in Thaliand, Pandan rice in Indonesia are very popular (Bryant McClung, 2011; Kawakami et al., 2009). These aromatic rice are more expensive and also more valuable than non aromatic one. Since fragrant rice is very expensive and pandan leaves that have aromatic rice like flavour. Nowadays, since the interest of customer flavour companies have come out with a number of mimetic rice flavour oils. 2-Acetylpyroline (2 ACPY) as one of the main compounds in rice also will give the popcorn like aroma like fragrance (F. Yahya, Fryer, Bakalis, 2011). Because of that, nowadays the encapsulated process of pandan aroma had been developed. Spray drying is the most common and cost effective way to perform encapsulation of flavors. The encapsulated flavour of pandan leaves by using gum Arabic and maltodextrin had been developed (Kawakami et a l., 2009). Pandan leaf extract has been used for food industries as dye materials, and also soya beverage and coconut milk. As a traditional herbal this leaves are generally used for traditional medicine especially to encounter the typhus illness in Indonesia (Roosita, Kusharto, Sekiyama, Fachrurozi, Ohtsuka, 2008). The effect of antimicrobial effect of pandan leaves has been investigated on the preservation of stored milk (Khusniati Widyastuti, 2008). Sometime, pandan leaves are also used to wrap food for cooking, such as chicken wrapped in pandanus leaves and are neatly folded into small baskets for filling with puddings and cakes (Wongpornchai, 2004). The leaves are sometimes also can be put into frying oils to impart flavour to fried food. Pandan extracts also capable of retarding oxidation in palm olein during deep frying process than as effectively other antioxidant which is BHT (Butyl Hydroxy Toluene). In sensory evaluation, the extract also was able to maintain sensory quality of French fries. The delightful flavour characteristic from pandan leaves, which is well-known throughout the world as an important component in Asian cookery, has made the industrial production of both natural extracts and artificial flavourings containing green food colors for use as food additives in Southeast Asian countries enlarge during the past two decades). Like other green leafy vegetables, pandan leaves are also known as potential source of several lipophilic antioxidant e.g. Ã ²-carotene, vitamin E, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid (Isabelle et al., 2010; Lee, Su, Ong, 2004). Leafy vegetables are nutrients dense sources. They possess antioxidant activity and thus have the potential to be used as cheap natural sources for reducing cellular oxidative damage and reduce degenerative conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. The consumption of several leafy vegetable are encouraged enough to fulfill nutrient especially in developing countries (Uusiku et al., 2010). Investigation of nutritional value of plants are essential especially to develop strategies to promote the utilization, cultivation and commercialization on these sources of nutrients which could be promoted a new source and other developing countries to assist in promoting biodiversity and combating malnutrition (SchÃ ¶nfeldt Pretorius, 2011; Uusiku et al., 2010). The delightful flavor characteristic from pandan leaves, which is well-known throughout the world as an important component in Asian cookery, has made the industrial production of both natural extracts and artificial flavorings containing green food colors for use as food additives in Southeast Asian countries enlarge during the past two decades (Wongpornchai, 2004). Pandan leaves which is known as one aromatic plants has been used in several Southeast Asia countries to confer aroma and flavors in several traditional food. Application of pandan leaves flavor have been used in rice, where rice-starch coating containing natural pandan extract produced non-aromatic rice with aroma compounds similar to that of aromatic rice (Laohakunjit Kerdchoechuen, 2007). Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from pandan leaves also have been investigated as a novel applications in food flavorings (Bhattacharjee, Kshirsagar, Singhal, 2005; Laohakunjit Noomhorm, 2004). Nowadays pandan leaves have been investigated also as waste treatment. The performance of extracted pandan leaves was investigated towards treatment of textille wastewater by using flocullation process (Ngadi, N. , Yusoff, 2013). This give such a promissing to develop several process by using natural source e.g. pandan leaves for several purposes. Carotenoids The color of food is perhaps the first attribute that consumers assess when determining the quality and appearance of a product, and therefore conditions its acceptability. Color becomes a measure of quality and also an indication of deterioration. More than 700 naturally occurring carotenoids have been identified (Britton et al., 2004). Carotenoids are widely distributed whereas C40 isoprenoid pigments with polyene chains contain up to 15 conjugated double bonds. They furnish flowers and fruits with distinct colors (e.g., yellow, orange, and red), which can attract pollinators In addition carotenoids play important roles in photosynthesis, light harvesting, and prevention of photooxidative damage (Britton et al., 2004). Carotenoids can be classified as carotenes (oxygen-free; e.g Ã ²-carotene) and xanthophylls (oxygen-containing; e.g. lutein, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and antheraxanthin (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. Chemical structures of selected carotenoids The polyene chain of carotenoids is responsible for the color of plants and fruits. The length of the chromophore influences the color, for example from the colorless phytoene, via the orange color of Ã ²-carotene to the red of capsaxanthin (due to the increasing number of double bonds). Besides the color, the polyene chain is responsible for the instability against several environmental factors e.g. oxidation, heat and light or oxidizing chemical (Britton et al., 2004). Carotenoid pigments are group of bioactive compounds that are of interest to the food scientists, nutritionists and food industries due to their positive impact on human health and their economic benefits. Carotenoids are responsible for the attractive color of most fruit and vegetables, having diverse biological functions and activities. An extensive number of factors determine the efficient incorporation of these phytochemicals from the diet In particular, an interest in increasing the consumption of carotenoids has been evident since the health effect of carotenoids, e.g. Ã ²-carotene consumption reduces the incidence of some types of cancer, and further evidences were obtained in subsequent studies (Britton et al., 2004). In animals, carotenoid pigments have several important biological activities from nutritional and physiological standpoints. Animals and humans cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo although they can metabolize some of them into vitamin A (retinol). Approximately 10% of carotenoids meet the main structural requirement for acting as vitamin A precursors, i.e., contain a Ã ²-type non-substituted ring, being Ã ²-carotene and Ã ²-cryptoxanthin the most representatives (FernÃ ¡ndez-GarcÃ a et al., 2012; Rodriguez-Amaya, 2010). The extensive presence and distribution of carotenoids in nature, where mainly are found in fruits and vegetables (foods that occupy or should occupy an important place in our diet), make carotenoids with provitamin A activity the most important source of retinol. Some groups of people, the vegetarians, even depend almost exclusively on fruits and vegetables as a source of retinol in the form of its precursors. In mammals, therefore, the unique and important b iological function of carotenoids with retinol equivalence is their role as vitamin A precursors, which is necessary for vision, growth, cell differentiation, and other physiological processes (FernÃ ¡ndez-GarcÃ a et al., 2012). Data published in the study Ã¢â¬Å"Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995Ã¢â¬â2005Ã¢â¬ published by the World Health Organisation in 2009, indicate that 190 million preschool-age children and 19.1 million pregnant women had levels of serum retinol less than 0.7 Ã ¼mol/L, which is the lower limit of normal, and below which is considered a state of vitamin A deficiency. The deficient population is distributed in countries whose gross domestic product (GDP) is less than US$15,000 and in those with 92% of the worlds population (WHO, 2005). Fortification in several foods is one alternative for reducing the vitamin A deficiency (VAD) Unfortunately, in developing countries e.g. in Indonesia potential knowledge to find indigenous plant resources to fulfill provitamin A requirement as essential nutrition have not established enough. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of major public health concern in Indonesia. Lack of intake of Vitamin A can cause this VAD and other degenerative disease (FernÃ ¡ndez-GarcÃ a et al., 2012). Several biochemical studies have proved that intake of sufficient carotenoids may give a protective effects from several diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracs, etc (MelÃ ©ndez-MartÃ nez, Vicario, Heredia, 2007). In Indonesia, several program have been developed to give sufficient intake of pro vitamin A e.g. fortification in several in foods, supplementation and diversification of food which mean finding a new potential provitamin A source (S. G. Berger, de Pee, Bloem, Halati, Semba, 2007; de Pee, West, Muhilal, Karyadi, Hautvast, 1995; Muslimatun et al., 2001; Robert Karyadi, 1988; Wieringa et al., 2003). The vitamin A capsule distribution program in Indonesia was more widely expanded in the 1980s to overcome VAD. Indonesia has one of the strongest vitamin A capsule distribution program for child survival and the intended coverage is for all infants 6-12 months and all preschool children 12-59 month of age. Universal periodic vitamin A supplementation is known as an effective intervention to increase child survival in Indonesia as one of developing country (S. G. Berger et al., 2007). Giving vitamin A to children with measles, serious malnutrition, diarrhea, or other illnesses protects a gainst death and blindness. Besides supplementation, another effort to overcome VAD is fortification. Fortification of foods commonly consumed by children is a viable strategy in developing countries. Margarine, dairy products, sugar, wheat flour, and monosodium glutamate (MSG) have been fortified with vitamin A in different countries. Finally, diversification of vitamin A rich food or provitamin A rich foods is another approach to overcome VAD (Pollard Favin, 1997). Learning from several developed countries, food fortification program has proven an effective and low-cost way to increase the micronutrient supply and reduce the consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. It has been rarely used in the developing world, but general conclusions can be drawn. The biological efficacy, but not the effectiveness, of fortifying oil and hydrogenated oil products as well as cereal flours and meals with vitamin A has been shown. Sugar has been fortified with vitamin A in Central American countries for years, and biological efficacy and program effectiveness are well established. Efficacy of fortifying monosodium glutamate with vitamin A was demonstrated but a program has not been established (Dary Mora, 2002). Fortification with vitamin A in the developing world should satisfy certain elements for success. Firstly, a potential food matrix a food regularly consumed, produced by a few centralized factories, without sensorial changes compared with the nonfortified equivalent, and nutrient remains bioavailable and in a sufficient amount) is required. Second, fortified foods should provide at least 15% of the recommended daily intakes for the target group (e.g., individuals consuming the lowest amount of the fortified food). Third, voluntary fortification of processed foods should be regulated to prevent excessive consumption of vitamin A. Forth, the neighboring countries should harmonize technical standards, facilitate compliance and minimize conflicts over global trade laws. Fifth, a practical monitoring system should be instituted. Six, Social marketing activities should be permanent and aimed at industry, government and consumers. Seven, food fortification should be combined with other stra tegies (e.g., supplementation) to reach those not adequately covered by fortification alone. Infants and small children, whose dietary habits differ from those of adults, require special attention. Fortification of food commodities is a very attractive and economic way to prevent and control vitamin A deficiency. Effective food fortification might make supplementation of postpartum women and older children unnecessary (Dary Mora, 2002). Norisoprenoids Degradation of carotenoids yield to apocarotenoids which can exhibit powerful aroma properties (Winterhalter Rouseff, 2002). Examples of volatile breakdown products of carotenoids are compounds with 13, 11, 10 or 9 carbon atoms, and the terminal group of their carotenoid parent as illustrated in Fig.3. Fig. 3. (a) Formation of (i) 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-one, (ii) Ã ²-cyclocitral, (iii) dihydroactinidiolide/ DHA and (iv) Ã ²-ionone from Ã ²-carotene; (b) Chemical structures of carotenoid derived aroma compounds with the megastigma structure The C13 compounds are the most abundant carotenoid derived aroma components in nature. They can be divided into: (1) compounds with the megastigmane structure, including the families of ionones and damascones with oxygen at C9 position in ionones or at C7 as in Ã ² -damascenone and (2) compounds with the megastigmane structure without oxygen in the lateral chain, e.g. megastigma-4,6,8-triene (Winterhalter and Rouseff, 2001). 2,2,6-Trimethylcyclohexen-1-one, Ã ²-cyclocitral and dihydroactinidiolide (DHA) are examples of C9, C10, C11 norisoprenoids, respectively (Winterhalter and Rouseff, 2001). Carotenoid derived aroma compounds are wide spread in nature where they occur in: (1) leaf products e.g. tea and tabbacco; (2) fruits e.g. grapes, starfruit, quince, and citrus fruits; (3) vegetables e.g. spinach, tomato, melon; (4) spices e.g. saffron, red pepper, and also in essential oils e.g. Osmanthus fragrans, Boronia megastigma, Rosa damascena (Winterhalter Rouseff, 2002). Several carotenoid derived aroma compounds are extremely powerful, e.g. the fruity signature of Ã ²-ionone is recognizable even at concentrations as low as 0.007 ppm, and the rose and raspberry-like aroma of Ã ²-damascenone is recognizable at even lower concentrations of 0.002 ppm (Winterhalter Rouseff, 2002). Volatiles in plants can be beneficial for humans. Recently, damascenone as one of norisoprenoids and related compounds were identified as potential cancer prevention phytochemicals. It was found that these compounds can both up-regulate the phase 2 cytoprotective enzymes and inhibit the induction of pro-inflammatory enzymes (GerhÃ ¤user et al., 2009). The damascones and related species showed significantly higher activities than ionones and their derived compounds. Besides damascenone, Ã ²-ionone has been shown to hold potent anti-proliferative and apoptosis induction properties in vitro and in vivo (J.-R. Liu et al., 2004). These results showed that the enzymatic reaction products of carotenoids have a good positive effect for human health that very promising for future application. HS-SPME for Flavor Analysis One of the primary goals in flavor research is to identify several flavor constituent in various sources (Linskens, 1996). The characterization of aroma compounds from natural sources is still a challenge despite the sophisticated techniques now available (Roe, 2005). Flavor components are usually present in a very low concentration (ppm or ppb). In addition, they have a wide range of polarity, solubility, volatility, and thermal and pH stability. The sources may be very complex and cause interference with the isolation techniques. Therefore, there is no single and simple method for the identification of aroma compounds from several natural sources (Roe, 2005). In order to study the flavor, it is first necessary to isolate volatiles from the complex non volatiles material. There are several methods for analysis of volatile constituent in plants and always have been developed from time to time for their efficiency and reproducibility. One of the other popular methods for analysis of volatile constituents in plants are headspace sampling techniques. Headspace sampling is probably the easiest way to capture and detect aroma compounds, since they exist in the space above the sample (Roe, 2005). It is simple and convenient and it has been used for all kinds of materials. It is especially useful for several sources that give of a lot of odor such as flowers and fruit. For samples that do not have odors, gentle heating can be accepted to help the release of volatiles. Due to the fact that these techniques detect highly volatiles compound, these techniques can be used to help to identify compounds that may be hidden in solvent peaks in liquid extra cts. The advantages examples are: (1) simple and quick; (2) solventless technique; (3) low amount of sample; (4) no artifacts are formed and no contaminants introduced (Roe, 2005). Some disadvantages of these techniques as examples are: (1) relative concentration of component in headspace does not reflect the concentration in the sample due to the difference in volatility of aroma compound. This methods can be classified to: (1) static headspace sampling where the sample is put into a sealed headspace vial and left to equal and atmosphere above the sample and (2) dynamic headspace where method the volatiles above the sample are swept away by carrier gas, onto a trap such as TENAX (Roe, 2005). The headspace volatiles are purged by air or nitrogen and are trapped by adsorption on porous polymer traps. Various trapping materials have been used such as charcoal, the Porapak series, the Chromosorb series, and Tenax. In a second step the volatiles are recovered by solvent or heat desorpti on (Linskens, 1996). Sorptive techniques allow rapid and solvent less extraction and pre-concentration of aroma compounds. They are based on the partitioning of organic components between aqueous or vapour phase and thin polymeric films (Roe, 2005). This technique group includes SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction), HSSE (Head Space Sorptive Extraction) and SBSE (Stirrer Bar Sorptive Extraction). SPME has been widely used a fused silica fibre coat with polymer film to collect the volatiles from the sample. In the mean time range of polar, non-polar and mixed fibers are available in the market. The fibre is inserted within a needle which is placed into a SPME holder for sampling and desorbing purposes. The sample is placed in a SPME vial then sealed by a septum cap. Mechanism for Enzymatic Formation of Norisoprenoids Carotenoid derived aroma compounds can be formed via an enzymatic or chemical degradation. The primary oxidative unspecific cleavage can be initiated by peroxides, photo-oxidation, or by thermal degradation (Winterhalter Rouseff, 2002). The specific enzymatic degradation of carotenoids is catalyzed by CCDs (Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases) and leads to the production of particular carotenoid derived aroma that are more environmental friendly which is suitable to the green technology approach. CCDs have the capability to cleave a broad spectrum of carotenoids, leading to the production of carotenoid derived aroma compounds e.g. tomato, maize, rose (Huang, HorvÃ ¡th, et al., 2009; Simkin, Schwartz, Auldridge, Taylor, Klee, 2004; Vallabhaneni, Bradbury, Wurtzel, 2010) In rose, CCD has the potential to cleave different substrates specifically at 9,10 (9`-10`) double bonds (Fig. 6) (Huang et al., 2009). Fig.4. Cleavage sites and volatile reaction products of recombinant RdCCD1 enzymes from Rosa damascena Aims The aim of this research is to investigate the carotenoid profiles in pandan leaves, the flavor compounds which is derived from carotenoids and the mechanism of flavor compounds from carotenoids in pandan leaves. The results from this research could be useful for studying the chemical and biochemical characteristics of flavor formation from carotenoids in model plant e.g. pandan leaves. In detail the objectives of the research are explained point by point bellow : Characteristic of carotenoids in pandan leaves by RP-HPLC (Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography) Characteristic of flavor profile in pandan leaves by HS-SPME GC-MS (Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry) Carotenoid Cleavage Activities by crude enzymes from Pandan Leaves including the characterization of enzyme activity in different carotenoid substrates, optimum pH and optimum temperature. References Baldermann, S. (2008). Carotenoid oxygenases from Camellia sinensis, Osmanthus fragrans, and Prunus persica nucipersicaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¯: kinetics and structure. GÃ ¶ttingen: Cuvillier. Baldermann, S., Kato, M., Kurosawa, M., Kurobayashi, Y., Fujita, A., Fleischmann, P., Watanabe, N. (2010). Functional characterization of a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 and its relation to the carotenoid accumulation and volatile emission during the floral development of Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61(11), 2967Ã¢â¬â77. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq123 Baldermann, S., Mulyadi, A. N., Yang, Z., Murata, A., Fleischmann, P., Winterhalter, P., Ã¢â¬ ¦ Watanabe, N. (2011). Application of centrifugal precipitation chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography equipped with a spiral tubing support rotor for the isolation and partial characterization of carotenoid cleavage-like enzymes in Enteromorpha compressa . Journal of Separation Science, 34(19), 2759Ã¢â¬â64. doi:10.1002/jssc.201100508 Baldermann, S., Naim, M., Fleischmann, P. (2005). Enzymatic carotenoid degradation and aroma formation in nectarines (Prunus persica). Third International Congress on Pigments in Food Third International Congress on Pigments in Food, 38(8Ã¢â¬â9), 833Ã¢â¬â836. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2005.02.009 Bechoff, A., Dhuique-Mayer, C., Dornier, M., Tomlins, K. I., Boulanger, R., Dufour, D., Westby, A. (2010). Relationship between the kinetics of Ã ²-carotene degradation and formation of norisoprenoids in the storage of dried sweet potato chips. Food Chemistry, 121(2), 348Ã¢â¬â357. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.12.035 Behrendt, D. (2011). Directed Evolution of Arabidopsis thaliana Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 1. RWTH Aachen University. Berger, R. G. (2009). Biotechnology of flavoursÃ¢â¬âthe next generation. Biotechnology Letters
Friday, January 17, 2020
School purchasers may make copies for use by their staff and students. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer. 1 198 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 USA Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Any websites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only. Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content. oxford and o xford english are registered trademarks of Oxford University Press Executive Publisher: Janet Aitchison Senior Acquisitions Editor: Pietro Alongi Associate Editor: Scott Allan Wallick Art Director: Maj-Britt Hagsted Production Manager: Shanta Persaud Production Controller: Eve Wong Ã © Oxford University Press 2007 isbn: 978- 0-19-430884-7 Database right Oxford University Press (maker) Effective Academic Writing 3: Answer Key an engineer . Both my mother and father were born in different countries, so my relatives are scattered all over the world . I really like traveling and have been to Europe and Asia . Although we try to get together for important occasions, this was the first time everyone could attend . Most importantly, my good friends had never met my relatives . Developing good friendships takes a lot of work . Watching them all dancing, laughing, and having a wonderful time will stay in my memory forever . The band we hired played music that the guests loved and we danced for hours .
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Rape Crisis Centers SER 101: Kevin Garganta Pierre Sophy Fall 2016 Abstract This research is focused on rape crisis centers for women who have been sexually abused or raped. Some survivors of rape and sexual abuse require the assistance of rape crisis centers to try and gain back control of their lives. Some women may require long-term counseling as a result whereas others do no. Whichever the case, with such a high number of survivors, the help must remain readily available. Rape and sexual abuse is a horrible act of violence, yet, it remains a taboo and the voices of those survivors arenÃ¢â¬â¢t heard by everyone. Statistics from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention show that one in five women will be raped at some point in their lives (Center for Disease Control, 2012). With such a large number, the women who did not speak out remain unaccounted for. This research will focus on rape crisis centers which provide immediate and long-term support for women who have been victims of rape and sexual assault. It will briefly explore the history of sexual assault and rape how rape crisis centers evolved from a grassroots organization to where it is today. Rape and sexual abuse remains a plague to society but the issue was once never addressed. When slavery was still legal in the United States, so was the rape of African American women: Ã¢â¬Å"It was common and legal for African American women who had been enslaved to be raped by White menÃ¢â¬ (n.d., HistoryShow MoreRelatedCase Study : Family Crisis Center1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDescription of Site Family Crisis Center was established in 1981 by volunteers who wanted to provide support for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. This center is located in Deep South Texas in a town named Harlingen, with a population of approximately 65,000 people. The Family Crisis Center is run by a board of directors consisting of eight members who are responsible for setting up policy and handling the financials of the center. The Family Crisis Center currently employs 23 fullRead MoreRape in the USA764 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRape crimes will not get reported seventy five percent of the time, due to some victims being too afraid to speak up. There is a problem in society; big issues like these need to be stopped. Rape is not just being touched or molested without wanting it, it is actually really more than it may appear. Rape can happen to anybody, anywhere, and at any time. The number of victims is shocking. Most rape victims know their rapist. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations reachi ng out to support rape victims. They sufferRead MoreRape Culture: Attitudes and Assessments Essay1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRape, it seems to be an uncomfortable word for most people to hear or talk about. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s just embarrassing or a sore subject most people just donÃ¢â¬â¢t like to talk about it. There is a certain stigma that surrounds rape and that is the main source of the problem. There is rape culture in this country that leads men and women in this country to believe that in certain situations rape is okay. Whether she was Ã¢â¬Å"dressed like she was asking for itÃ¢â¬ or was passed out drunk, these are not excuses forRead MoreHow Social Does Social Connections Affect The Person And The Group Dynamic?1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof the group involvement. The Rape Crisis Center Group is considered one of the groups. The organization, Rape Crisis Center, is the primary support and contributes to victims of sexual brutality, battery, and safeguard for victims. The system offers victims and their family with a chance to have entree to several distinctive sources; group counseling and housing. During an observed meeting of the social interactions among group participants of the Rape Crisis Center Therapy Group there seemed toRead MoreSexual Assault And Its Effects On The Middle Upper Class Essay1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith minority groups such as the LGBTQ+ community, racial/ethnic minorities, and with the lower class do not have the support services needed to help them recover from sexual assault. Understanding how minority persons needs differ can help rape crisis centers and other sexual assault support agencies more accurately provide resources that not only help these minority groups individually, but also helps survivors who have multiple intersecting minorities as they can choose from diverse services forRead MoreRape1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract This study will examine what the factors are that influence which victims of sexual assault experience PTSD symptoms and which treatments help prevent these symptoms from occurring. The sample includes 100 women diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) attributed to rape who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Findings were assessed through coding and analyzed through participants written statements at three separate time points: before treatment, during treatment, andRead MoreExploring A Specific Crisis Situations1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Exploring a Specific Crisis Situations The Story of Melody Shandi Gerkin Thomas University Exploring a Specific Crisis Situation: The Story of Melody In order to explore how a crisis worker would approach, assess, and treat a crisis situation, this paper will focus on the story of Melody, the victim of a brutal rape. Melody Swanson is a 50 year old, divorced teacher who has been living alone since her children went to college two months ago. MelodyRead MoreRape: A Crime1196 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe definition of rape is: The unlawful compelling of a person through physical force or duress to have sexual intercourse. Basically, rape is a forceful act in trying any way possible to make someone have sex with them. This crime is still being committed to this day and is not viewed as big of an issue as it truly is. In order to prove rape is a disgusting and unnecessary crime, the following essay will consist of the history, laws, the costs involved, health effects, and the opposing sideÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefsRead More Older Woman Essay1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOlder Women - Hidden Sexual Abuse Victims Although other forms of violence within the family have received increasing attention from professionals and the media over recent years, including the physical abuse and neglect of children, child sexual abuse, and domestic violence, elder abuse remains relatively hidden. This is especially true of sexual abuse of older persons. While there are some references to stranger rapes of older women, the topic of elder sexual abuse within the family is rarelyRead MoreIs Rape Culture A Problem?1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProfessor LaPalme English Comp 101 28 September 2015 Is Rape Culture a Problem in America? Why This Systematic Tolerance Needs to End. Rape culture. This is a term that was coined in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s feminism movement that has been rehashed with 4th wave feminism amongst millennials in the 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s. Though the term seems to irritate many that attempt to refute that the systematic tolerance of rape in America is a non-issue that would disappear if Ã¢â¬Å"women just stopped getting so drunkÃ¢â¬ (Judge Mary Jane Mowat